The leaf blade, or lamina, of Vitis species is bordered on the upper and lower surfaces by the upper and lower epidermal layers. Between these layers are the inner tissues of the leaf that are collectively called the mesophyll.

Palisade parenchyma tissue is located near the adaxial (upper) surface of the leaf. These parenchyma cells contain many chloroplasts and are thus main players in the process of photosynthesis. The spongy mesophyll tissue is made up of more loosely packed parenchyma cells. Areas within the spongy mesophyll, termed substomatal cavities, are where gas exchange takes place.

Many leaves in Vitis species contain raphide crystals. In this leaf these calcium oxalate crystals are contained in a bundle.

Leaf Lamina XS

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